History of Nepal: From Ancient Kingdoms to a Federal Republic

Embark on a journey through the History of Nepal, tracing the rise of dynasties, pivotal conflicts, and the enduring spirit that shaped this unique Himalayan land.

History of Nepal: From Ancient Kingdoms to a Federal Republic
History of Nepal

Nepal, nestled in the heart of the Himalayas, boasts a rich and diverse history that spans millennia. From ancient kingdoms to the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a federal republic, Nepal's historical journey is marked by political, cultural, and social transformations.

Ancient Kingdoms (Before 1768):

Nepal's pre-1768 history is a tapestry woven with the threads of diverse civilizations, ancient trade routes, and rich cultural interactions. This era, preceding the transformative events of 1768, witnessed the emergence of distinct kingdoms, each contributing to Nepal's unique cultural heritage.

  1. Cultural Crossroads:

    Archaeological findings reveal early settlements, indicating the region's significance as a hub for cultural and trade exchanges. Nestled in the lap of the Himalayas, Nepal's strategic location facilitated connections between South Asia, Tibet, and beyond. These interactions fostered a diverse cultural milieu, with each ancient kingdom contributing to the vibrant tapestry of Nepal's heritage.
  2. Kingdoms and Trade:

    Before 1768, Nepal was home to various kingdoms and principalities. These entities thrived on trade networks that crisscrossed the region, bringing prosperity and cultural influences. The diverse ethnic groups within these kingdoms developed unique languages, traditions, and social structures, adding layers of complexity to the cultural landscape.
  3. Cooperation and Conflict:

    The pre-1768 period was characterized by a delicate balance of cooperation and conflicts among the kingdoms. Trade flourished along the ancient routes, fostering economic prosperity. However, territorial disputes and power struggles were inherent challenges that shaped the political landscape.
  4. Prithvi Narayan Shah's Unification:

    The turning point came in 1768 when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Gurkha ruler, embarked on a historic mission. Through conquests, he unified the disparate kingdoms, laying the foundation for a centralized political system. This marked the beginning of a new chapter in Nepal's history, setting the stage for subsequent expansions, conflicts, and transformations.

The era before 1768 serves as a crucial chapter in Nepal's history, where the convergence of cultures, trade, and political dynamics shaped the trajectory of the region, paving the way for the events that would unfold in the centuries to come. 

Challenges and Expansion (1768-1950):

  1. Formation of a Unified State:

    In 1768, Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah achieved a pivotal milestone by conquering Kathmandu, establishing the foundation for a unified state in the central Himalayas. However, this endeavor faced internal challenges owing to the region's diversity, ethnic variations, and local parochialism.
  2. Centralization Struggles:

    The Shah rulers endeavored to centralize power, absorbing regional elites into the administration at Kathmandu. While this neutralized potential divisive forces, it concurrently restricted central authority in outlying areas. The compromise between local elites and the central administration became a hallmark of Nepal's political landscape.
  3. Royal Power Struggles (1775-1951):

    From 1775 to 1951, Nepal witnessed power struggles between the royal family and noble families. Two kings, who ascended the throne as minors, saw regents and nobility vying for political control. The Thapa and Rana families, in particular, marginalized the Shah rulers, reducing them to ceremonial figures. Nepalese politics during this era became conspiratorial, with familial loyalties superseding allegiance to the crown or nation.
  4. External Relations and Setbacks:

    Prithvi Narayan Shah and his successors initiated a vigorous expansion program, seeking to bring the entire hill area under their authority. Despite making progress, wars with China, Tibet, the Sikh kingdom, and British India resulted in setbacks that defined Nepal's present boundaries. The British conquest of India in the 19th century prompted Nepal to align strategically, leading to an alliance with the British in exchange for Gurkha recruitment.
  5. Rana Dominance and Political Isolation:

    The Rana family's ascendancy in 1846 marked a prolonged period of political domination, sidelining the Shah dynasty. This era witnessed the exclusion of noble families, pushing them to either accept inferior posts or conspire against the dominant family. Nepal's politics remained conspiratorial, with loyalty to familial interests prevailing over broader national concerns.
  6. Shifting Alliances and Geopolitical Balancing:

    Amid the changing geopolitical landscape, Nepal carefully navigated its relations with both India and China. A de facto alliance with the British provided a shield against external threats, but the withdrawal of the British from India in 1947 exposed Nepal to new dangers, prompting a revolution in 1950.

The challenges and expansions from 1768 to 1950 set the stage for Nepal's modern political dynamics, influencing its internal power structures and external relations. The subsequent abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a democratic republic were shaped by the intricate historical developments during this transformative period.

Constitutional Monarchy (1951-1990):

  1. Emergence of the Maoists:

    In 1996, Nepal was engulfed by a decade-long Maoist insurgency led by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). Fueled by socio-economic disparities and a desire to abolish the monarchy, the rebels, under the leadership of Pushpa Kamal Dahal (Prachanda), resorted to guerrilla warfare.
  2. Violent Conflict:

    The insurgency witnessed intense clashes between the Maoists and government forces. Both sides engaged in violent tactics, leading to a significant loss of life and displacement of populations. The rebels advocated for a communist republic, challenging the existing political structure.
  3. Royal Tragedy:

    The year 2001 brought a tragic turn when Crown Prince Dipendra killed King Birendra and other royal family members before turning the gun on himself. Gyanendra ascended the throne amid suspicions and unrest, further complicating the political landscape.
  4. State of Emergency:

    In November 2001, a state of emergency was declared as the government aimed to crush the Maoist rebellion. The conflict intensified, resulting in hundreds of casualties. The king ordered the army to suppress the insurgents, leading to widespread human rights abuses.
  5. Path to Peace:

    Amid the escalating violence, both the government and Maoists declared a ceasefire in 2003. However, peace talks broke down, leading to a resurgence of hostilities. The conflict finally saw a turning point in 2006.
  6. Comprehensive Peace Agreement:

    In November 2006, the government and Maoists signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), formally ending the insurgency. The accord outlined the Maoists' integration into mainstream politics, the formation of an interim government, and the drafting of a new constitution.
  7. Transition to Democracy:

    The peace deal paved the way for the Maoists to join an interim government in 2007. The subsequent years witnessed significant political changes, including the abolition of the monarchy in 2008 and the declaration of Nepal as a republic. The Maoists, now a mainstream political force, played a crucial role in Nepal's transition to a federal democratic republic.

Maoist Insurgency and Civil War (1990s-2000s):

  1. Background:

    In the early 1990s, Nepal grappled with a Maoist insurgency that emerged as a response to socio-economic disparities and the desire to eliminate the monarchy. The insurgents, led by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), aimed to establish a communist republic.
  2. Escalation of Violence:

    The Maoists employed guerrilla tactics, targeting security forces and infrastructure, and gained substantial support in rural areas. The conflict intensified in the late 1990s, leading to a full-fledged civil war characterized by bombings, armed clashes, and widespread unrest.
  3. Palace Massacre (2001):

    The political landscape was further complicated by the tragic palace massacre in June 2001. Crown Prince Dipendra killed King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya, and other royal family members before turning the weapon on himself. Gyanendra, the king's brother, ascended the throne.
  4. State of Emergency (2001-2002):

    In November 2001, a state of emergency was declared after peace talks with the Maoists failed. King Gyanendra ordered the army to crush the rebellion, leading to a significant loss of life in subsequent months.
  5. Royal Actions:

    The political situation took a tumultuous turn in 2002 when King Gyanendra dismissed the government, dissolved parliament, and indefinitely postponed scheduled elections. The royal actions were met with domestic and international criticism.
  6. Restoration of Democracy (2006):

    The year 2006 witnessed a turning point as King Gyanendra, facing intense protests and strikes, agreed to reinstate the parliament. A ceasefire was declared, leading to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in November 2006, formally ending the decade-long insurgency.
  7. Integration into Mainstream Politics:

    Following the peace agreement, Maoist leaders entered the interim parliament in 2007, signaling their shift into mainstream politics. The interim government, formed with Maoist participation, prepared the ground for the abolition of the monarchy.
  8. Abolition of Monarchy (2008):

    In December 2007, parliament approved the abolition of the monarchy as part of the peace deal with the Maoists. The historic move marked Nepal's transition into a federal democratic republic in May 2008.

The Maoist insurgency and civil war left an indelible mark on Nepal's history, shaping its political landscape and paving the way for a new era of governance.

Emergency and Political Transition (2001-2008):

  1. Background:

    In 2001, Nepal faced a significant political crisis when Crown Prince Dipendra killed King Birendra, leading to Gyanendra's ascension to the throne. This period witnessed heightened violence from Maoist rebels, prompting the declaration of a state of emergency in 2001.
  2. State of Emergency:

    King Gyanendra ordered the army to crush the Maoist rebels, resulting in a substantial loss of life. The situation escalated further in 2002 when Parliament was dissolved, fresh elections were called, and the state of emergency was extended, intensifying political confrontation.
  3. Political Reversals:

    King Gyanendra dismissed Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba and indefinitely postponed scheduled elections. In 2003, rebels and the government declared a ceasefire, but peace talks collapsed in 2003, leading to increased violence. The subsequent months saw a resurgence of clashes between students/activists and the police.
  4. International Involvement:

    While Nepal joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2004, internal dissent continued, resulting in street protests demanding a return to democracy. In 2005, facing mounting international pressure, King Gyanendra lifted the state of emergency and reinstated Parliament.
  5. Political Transition:

    The years that followed witnessed an agreement between Maoist rebels and main opposition parties to restore democracy. In 2006, King Gyanendra agreed to reinstate Parliament, leading to peace talks and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in November 2006, formally ending the decade-long insurgency.
  6. Impact:

    In 2007, Maoists joined an interim government, marking their entry into mainstream politics. However, ongoing disagreements led to their withdrawal, demanding the abolition of the monarchy. The monarchy was eventually abolished in 2008 as part of a peace deal, culminating in Nepal officially becoming a republic.

End of Monarchy and Political Shift (2008-2015):

  1. Transition to a Republic:

    In 2008, Nepal bid farewell to its centuries-old monarchy, officially declaring itself a republic. The culmination of historic elections to the Constituent Assembly marked a significant political shift.
  2. Landmark Constitution:

    The year 2015 witnessed a groundbreaking moment with the passage of a new constitution. This document defined Nepal as a secular federal republic, emphasizing inclusivity and reflecting the evolving aspirations of its diverse population.
  3. Post-Monarchy Challenges:

    The transition brought about political adjustments, with the establishment of a federal structure and the realignment of political dynamics. The end of the monarchy symbolized a turning point in Nepal's history, ushering in an era of renewed focus on democratic principles and representation.

Recent Developments (2016 Onward):

  1. Political Dynamics:

    The post-2016 era in Nepal has been characterized by a dynamic political landscape. Leadership changes and rotations, including the tenure of Prime Minister K.P. Oli, underscored the country's efforts to navigate complex political challenges. Maoist leader Pushpa Kamal Dahal, alias Prachanda, assumed the prime ministerial role during this period.
  2. Legal Milestones:

    A significant development during this phase was the conviction of three former soldiers in 2017 for crimes linked to the civil war. This marked a historic moment as it represented a step towards justice and accountability, addressing the legacy of the conflict.
  3. Economic Agreements:

    In 2014, Nepal and India signed a crucial deal to build a $1 billion hydropower plant on Nepal's Arun River, aimed at mitigating the country's persistent energy shortages. This agreement was part of Nepal's strategy to enhance its economic infrastructure and foster regional cooperation.
  4. Natural Disaster Response:

    The devastating earthquake in 2015 prompted a renewed focus on reconstruction efforts and disaster resilience. The government, along with international assistance, worked to rebuild infrastructure, homes, and communities affected by the earthquake, showcasing Nepal's determination to recover and rebuild.
  5. Diplomatic Engagements:

    The collaboration between Nepal and China reached a milestone with their first-ever joint military exercise, highlighting the evolving diplomatic relationships in the region. These engagements signal Nepal's efforts to diversify its international partnerships and strengthen regional ties.
  6. Rotation of Prime Ministers:

    The years following 2016 witnessed a rotation of prime ministers, including Sher Bahadur Deuba and Pushpa Kamal Dahal, as part of a political agreement lasting until elections in February 2018. This period was marked by political transitions and negotiations to address the country's evolving needs.

In summary, the recent developments in Nepal reflect a multifaceted approach to political challenges, economic growth, legal accountability, and disaster recovery. The nation's ability to adapt to changing circumstances and engage in international collaborations positions it for further progress and development.


Ancient Period

  • Before 1768: Evidence of early civilizations and trade routes in the region.

Unification and Establishment of Gurkha Rule

  • 1768: Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah conquers Kathmandu, laying the foundations for a unified kingdom.

External Conflicts and Expansion

  • 1792: Nepalese expansion halted by defeat at the hands of the Chinese in Tibet.
  • 1814-16: Anglo-Nepalese War; culminates in a treaty that establishes Nepal's current boundaries.

Rana Rule and Isolation

  • 1846: Nepal falls under the sway of hereditary chief ministers known as Ranas, who dominate the monarchy and isolate the country from the outside world.

Early 20th Century

  • 1923: Treaty with Britain affirms Nepal's sovereignty.

Absolute Monarchy and Political Turmoil

  • 1950: Anti-Rana forces based in India form an alliance with the monarch.
  • 1951: End of Rana rule. Sovereignty of the crown is restored, and anti-Rana rebels in the Nepalese Congress Party form the government.
  • 1953: New Zealander Edmund Hillary and Nepal's Sherpa Tenzing Norgay become the first climbers to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
  • 1955: Nepal joins the United Nations.
  • 1955: King Tribhuwan dies, and King Mahendra ascends the throne.
  • 1959: Multi-party constitution adopted.
  • 1960: King Mahendra seizes control, suspends parliament, constitution, and party politics after the Nepali Congress Party (NCP) wins elections with B. P. Koirala as premier.
  • 1962: New constitution provides for a non-party system of councils known as "panchayat" under which the king exercises sole power.
  • 1972: King Mahendra dies, succeeded by Birendra.

Multi-Party Politics and Democratization

  • 1980: Constitutional referendum follows agitation for reform. A small majority favors keeping the existing panchayat system.
  • 1985: NCP begins a civil disobedience campaign for the restoration of a multi-party system.
  • 1986: New elections boycotted by NCP.
  • 1989: Trade and transit dispute with India leads to a border blockade by Delhi, resulting in a worsening economic situation.
  • 1990: Pro-democracy agitation coordinated by NCP and leftist groups. Street protests are suppressed by security forces, resulting in deaths and mass arrests. King Birendra eventually agrees to a new democratic constitution.
  • 1991: Nepali Congress Party wins the first democratic elections. Girija Prasad Koirala becomes prime minister.

Political Instability and Maoist Insurgency

  • 1994: Koirala's government defeated in a no-confidence motion. New elections lead to the formation of a Communist government.
  • 1995: Communist government is dissolved.
  • 1995: Start of the Maoist revolt, which drags on for more than a decade and kills thousands. The rebels want the monarchy to be abolished.
  • 1997: Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba loses a no-confidence vote, ushering in a period of increased political instability, with frequent changes of prime minister.
  • 2000: GP Koirala returns as prime minister, heading the ninth government in 10 years.

Palace Massacre and State of Emergency

  • 2001 June 1: Crown Prince Dipendra kills King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya, and several members of the royal family before shooting himself. The king's brother, Gyanendra, is crowned king.
  • 2001 July: Maoist rebels step up a campaign of violence. Prime Minister GP Koirala quits over the violence, succeeded by Sher Bahadur Deuba.
  • 2001 November: Maoists end a four-month-old truce with the government, declare peace talks with the government failed, and launch coordinated attacks on army and police posts.
  • 2001 November: A state of emergency is declared after more than 100 people are killed in four days of violence. King Gyanendra orders the army to crush the Maoist rebels. Many hundreds are killed in rebel and government operations in the following months.
  • 2002 May: Parliament is dissolved, fresh elections called amid political confrontation over extending the state of emergency. Sher Bahadur Deuba heads the interim government, renews the emergency.
  • 2002 October: King Gyanendra dismisses Deuba and indefinitely puts off elections set for November.
  • 2003 January: Rebels and the government declare a ceasefire.

End of Truce and Political Shifts

  • 2003 August: Rebels pull out of peace talks with the government and end a seven-month truce. The following months see a resurgence of violence and frequent clashes between students/activists and the police.
  • 2004 April: Nepal joins the World Trade Organisation (WTO).
  • 2004 May: Street protests by opposition groups demanding a return to democracy. Royalist Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa quits.
  • 2005 February: King Gyanendra dismisses the government, restores absolute monarchy, and declares a state of emergency, citing the need to defeat Maoist rebels.
  • 2005 April: King Gyanendra bows to international pressure, lifts the state of emergency, and reinstates parliament.
  • 2005 November: Maoist rebels and main opposition parties agree on a program intended to restore democracy.
  • 2006 April: King Gyanendra agrees to reinstate parliament following weeks of violent strikes and protests against direct royal rule. Maoist rebels call a three-month ceasefire.
  • 2006 May: Parliament votes unanimously to curb the king's political powers. The government holds peace talks with the Maoist rebels.

Peace Deal and Political Transition

  • 2006 November: The government signs a peace deal with the Maoists - the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) - formally ending the decade-long insurgency.
  • 2007 January: Maoist leaders enter parliament under the terms of a temporary constitution.
  • 2007 April: Maoists join an interim government, a move that brings them into the political mainstream.
  • 2007 September: Three bombs hit Kathmandu in the first attack in the capital since the end of the Maoist insurgency.
  • 2007 November: Parliament approves the abolition of the monarchy as part of a peace deal with Maoists, who agree to rejoin the government.
  • 2008 January: A series of bomb blasts kill and injure dozens in the southern Terai plains, where activists have been demanding regional autonomy.
  • 2008 April: Former Maoist rebels win the largest bloc of seats in elections to the new Constituent Assembly (CA), but fail to achieve an outright majority.
  • 2008 May: Nepal becomes a republic.
  • 2008 June: Maoist ministers resign from the cabinet in a row over who should be the next head of state.
  • 2008 July: Ram Baran Yadav becomes Nepal's first president.
  • 2008 August: Maoist leader Pushpa Kamal Dahal aka Prachanda forms a coalition government, with Nepali Congress going into opposition.

Maoists Leave Government and Constitutional Impasse

  • 2009 May: Prime Minister Prachanda resigns following a row with President Yadav over the integration of former rebel fighters into the military.
  • 2009 May: Britain announces that Gurkha veterans with at least four years' service in the British army will be allowed to settle in the UK.
  • 2009 December: Four people are killed in clashes triggered by a Maoist-led land grab in the far west, giving rise to fears for the peace process.

Constitution Deadlock and Elections

  • 2010 May: The Constituent Assembly (CA) votes to extend the deadline for drafting the constitution, the first of four extensions.
  • 2011 January: UN ends its peace monitoring mission.
  • 2012 May: The Constituent Assembly (CA) is dissolved after failing to produce a draft constitution.
  • 2013 November: The left-wing Nepali Congress wins the second Constituent Assembly elections, pushing the former ruling Maoists into third place and leaving no party with a majority.
  • 2014 February: Nepali Congress leader Sushil Koirala is elected prime minister after securing parliamentary support.
  • 2014 April: Sixteen Nepalese sherpa guides die in an avalanche on Mount Everest in the worst-recorded accident in the mountain's history.
  • 2014 November: Nepal and India sign a deal to build a $1bn hydropower plant on Nepal's Arun river to counter crippling energy shortages.

Earthquake, Constitution, and Political Shifts

  • 2015 April: A 7.8-magnitude earthquake strikes Kathmandu and its surrounding areas, killing more than 8,000 people, causing mass devastation, and leaving millions homeless.
  • 2015 September: Parliament passes a landmark constitution, which defines Nepal as a secular country, despite calls to delay voting after more than 40 people are killed in protests.
  • 2015 October: K.P. Prasad becomes the first prime minister to be elected under the new constitution.
  • 2016 February: The government lifts fuel rationing after the ethnic minority Madhesi communities, partially backed by India, end a six-month border blockade in protest over the new constitution, which they say is discriminatory.
  • 2016 July: Maoist party pulls out of the governing coalition. Prime Minister K.P. Oli resigns ahead of a no-confidence vote in parliament.
  • 2016 August: Parliament elects former communist rebel leader and Maoist party leader Pushpa Kamal Dahal aka Prachanda as prime minister for the second time.
  • 2017 April: Three former soldiers are convicted over the murder of a 15-year-old girl during the civil war, the first time serving or former members of the army have been found guilty of crimes linked to the conflict.
  • 2017 June: Pushpa Kamal Dahal replaced as prime minister by the Congress leader Sher Bahadur Deuba under a rotation agreement reached the previous April and set to last until elections in February 2018.

This detailed timeline provides a comprehensive overview of Nepal's historical events, spanning from ancient times to recent political developments.


Nepal's history is a tapestry of ancient civilizations, political transformations, and socio-cultural dynamics. From the establishment of ancient kingdoms to the abolition of the monarchy and the formation of a federal republic, Nepal's journey reflects its resilience and adaptability in the face of challenges. As the country continues to navigate its path, understanding its history provides insight into the forces that have shaped the nation.